第70課: Contrasting は

This lesson will discuss は’s role as an indicator of contrast between more than one thing. 

More on は

は may highlight the scope of a sentence by indicating contrast and can do so even when there aren't two things stated. In a negative sentence it emphasizes negation. By doing so, the emphasis is still placed on what は marks. Overall, though, a negative sentence with は is markedly noticed. は can be seen after other things such as other like other particles and even adverbs like "always".  

1. (いぬ)()(ごえ)()こえるが、犬の姿(すがた)()えない。
   I can hear the dog, but I can't see the dog.

Grammar Note: While the first は is thematic, the second shows contrast.

2. ぼくは行かない。
   I won't go. (Giving the emphasis that you aren't and don't want to.)

3. ボールペンはない。
  There is no ballpoint pen.

4. いつもは行きます。(Polite)
   I always go.

5. お(かね)(はら)うよ。
   I'll pay the money.

Particle Note: よ marks emphasis and puts stress on the fact that you're paying.  

6. 日本語は難しいですが、英語は難しくないです。
   Japanese is hard, but English isn't hard. 

7. わたしはペンは持っていますが、鉛筆は持っていません。 
  I have a pen, but I do not have a pencil.

8. あなたは分からないけど、みんなはもう分かってるよ。
  You don't know, but everyone else already knows.