第361課: Regular Verbs III: 上二段 & 下二段

     In this lesson we will learn about 二段 verbs. There are several single mora verbs as well as verbs that end in ゆ and づ. As the two classes of 二段 verbs look the same in the 終止形, you will have to memorize what class a verb is in, which is easy when you know what a given verb is in Modern Japanese. 上二段 and 下二段, each of which are only different in what two vowels are involved in their bases as the names suggest, have become 上一段 and 下一段 verbs respectively in Modern Japanese.

上二段活用動詞

     There are a lot of 上二段 verbs in Classical Japanese. These verbs are those that end in -iru as 上一段 verbs in Japanese. Unlike Modern Japanese verbs which can only end in 9 certain morae, 二段 verbs can end in any う-vowel かな. There are three verbs in particular that are y-row verbs.

 老ゆ おゆ 悔ゆ くゆ 報ゆ むくゆ

     The upper two-vowel grade conjugation for 上二段 verbs consists of the verbs i and u. Below are the bases of 上二段 verbs illustrated by the verb 落つ meaning "to fall". 

 未然形 連用形 終止形 連体形 已然形 命令形
 おち おち おつ おつる おつれ おちよ

 Examples

1. 清見が関を過ぐ。
    We pass the barrier at Kiyomi.
From the 十六夜.

2. 木の葉の落つるも、まづ落ちて芽ぐむにはあらず。
    As for the falling of the tree leaves, it's not that they fall and then bud.
From the 徒然草. 

3. たけき者もつひには滅びぬ。
    Even the brave will eventually parish.
From the 平家物語.

4. おのづから、このほど過ぎば、見直したまひてむ。
    Naturally, if one passes this period, one will no doubt look over it again.
From the 源氏物語.

Grammar Note: ~てむ is the combination of the auxiliary verb ~つ and the auxiliary verb ~む to in this situation to show speculation with confidence.

5. むなしく過ぐる事を惜しむべし。
    You should regret passing your life in vain.
From the 徒然草. 

6. はやく過ぎよ。
    Pass it quickly!
From the 枕草子.

7. 良頼の兵衛督(ひやふゑのかみ)(まう)しし人の(いへ)を過ぐれば、それ桟敷(さじき)へ渡り給ふなるべし。 
    When we passed the house of a person named Hyouenokami of Yoshiyori, he was supposed to have      just passed the balcony.
From the 更級日記.

下二段活用動詞

     下二段 verbs are those that now end in -える. There were even verbs like 得(う) "to get" and 経(ふ) that were only one mora long. The distinction between its bases and its stem is blurred. You can find 下二段 verbs  that end in any う-vowel かな. This at times makes it hard to distinguish them from 四段 verbs. However, 四段 verbs, just like in Modern Japanese, only end in う, く, す, つ, ぬ, む, る, ぐ, or ぶ. Below are the bases of 下二段 verbs with the verb 植う.

 未然形 連用形 終止形 連体形 已然形 命令形
 うゑ うゑ うう ううる ううれ うゑよ

Examples

8. 雨降り日暮る。
    The rain fell, and the sun set.
From the 奥の細道.

9. 心かしこき関守(せきもり)侍りと聞こゆ。 
    They say that there is a clever barrier guard.
From the 枕草子.

10. いさめをも思ひ入れず
      Not even trying to accept counsel
From the 平家物語.

11. 都を出でて
      We left the capital
From the 平家物語.

Base Note: The bases for a verb like 出づ are 出で、いで、いづ、いづる、いづれ、and いでよ.

12. あしたに死に、ゆふべに生まるるならひ
      The pattern of dying in the morning and being born in the evening
From the 方丈記.

13. 近き火などに逃ぐる人は、「しばし」とやいふ。
      Do people fleeing a nearby fire say, "wait a minute"?
From the 徒然草.

14. 日も()く暮れよかし。
      May the sun set soon!
From the 今昔物語集.

Particle Note: The particle かし creates great emphasis and frequently follows the 命令形.

15. かくて今日(けふ)暮れぬ。
      Thus, today came to an end.
From the 土佐日記.

Grammar Note: ~ぬ shows the perfective.  


Exercises

1. What did 二段 verbs become in Modern Japanese?

2. How did 二段 verbs evolve to what they are today?

3. Give the bases for 上二段 verbs.

4. Give the bases for 下一段 verbs.

5. Give the bases for 下二段 verbs.

6. Conjugate the 下二段 verb 經 (ふ) meaning "to pass (time)" into its bases.

7. Conjugate 捨つ with the endings べし, む, and ど.

8. Conjugate 恥づ into its bases and then use it with the noun 事. 

9. Categorize the following verbs.

 Verb Class
 呼ぶ (よぶ) 
 飢う (うう) 
 得 (う) 
 老ゆ (おゆ) 
 思う (おもう) 
 過ぐ (すぐ) 
 居る (ゐる) 
 出づ (いづ) 
 強ふ (しふ) 
 告ぐ (つぐ) 
 朽つ (くつ) 
 見る (みる) 

10. For the verbs mentioned in exercise 9, give the modern form of the verb. If it is already modern, say so.