第215課: Circumstance: 場合 & ~に備えて

場合 means "circumstance" and the grammar behind it and its usage are very important.

場合

場合 is often in ~場合(は) to mean "in the case/event of...". It is a nominal phrase, so it is not limited to this grammatical construction. It is very similar to the particle ~たら in that it presents a hypothetical. As it is used to pinpoint a circumstance, it often replaces the particle in doing so. Though you see it after ~た, it is a hypothetical situation of what could happen. So, it is inappropriate if the situation that you are raising is actually of the past.

1. 火事の場合、段階を使いなさい。
    In the case of fire, use staircases.

2. 英語の場合はちゃんとイエスやノーを言いますが、日本語の場合は違います。
    In the case of English, you precisely say yes or no, but in the case of Japanese, it’s different.

3. 何か問題があった場合、(だれ)連絡(れんらく)すればいいですか。
     In case of any problems, who would be good to contact?

It is very easy to use this phrase when stating a particular situation after stating the norm. After all, you are pinpointing a hypothetical that is important.

4a. 日曜や祝日は手数料は要らないが、平日の場合は手数料がかかる。
4b. 日曜や祝日は手数料は要らない。ただし、平日の場合は手数料がかかる。
      There is no need for handling fees on Sundays and holidays, but on week days there is a charge.

Grammar Note: The two paraphrases are important in showing different situations where 場合 may be used, with the second option clearly being used in showing it in a two sentence statement.

Particle Note: The difference between ~場合, ~場合は, and ~場合に is essentially the same as with ~とき. The second option, of course, is used particularly when emphatically raising something or creating a contrast with another situation. The third option is used easily when the following clause involves an action/change.

5. 

A: このゴムはどう使うんですか。
B: 椅子がガタガタする場合に、ここに嵌めてください。
A: ああ、なるほど。
B: 通常の場合は、椅子の後ろのポケットに入れておいてください。

A: How do you use this rubber?
B: Fit it in here in the event that the chair rattles.
A: Ah, I see.
B: In regular cases, place it the pocket behind the chair.
From 中級日本語文法と教え方のポイント by 市川保子.

6. 火事の場合は、エレベーターを使わないでください。
    In the event of a fire, please do not use the elevators.

7. 地震が起こった場合、階段を使ってください。
    In the case of an earthquake, use the stairs.

8. エレベーターに閉じ込められた場合、長期戦を覚悟(かくご)して体力を消耗(しょうもう)しないようにしてください。
    In the case you are trapped in an elevator, try not to waste your energy and prepare yourself for long     fight.

9. 地震が起こった場合、(あわ)てて階段を降りたり(のぼ)ったりするのは危険なのでその場にしゃがんで待機しましょう。
In the event of an earthquake, because it is dangerous to hastily go up and down the stairs, let’s crouch in that place and be on standby.

10. 最悪さいあく場合ばあいを覚悟する。
      To prepare for the worst. 

11. それは極端な場合だよ。
      That's an extreme case.

12. 場合によりけりだ。
      It depends on the case.

13. 雨天の場合には、お電話ください。
      Call me in the case that it rains.

14. 緊急の場合は警察を呼びなさい。
      In the case of an emergency, call the police.

~ている場合 is used to criticize someone that is not dealing with a tense situation appropriately.

15. 笑ってる場合か?
      Is this really the time to be laughing?

Also, ~場合{が・も}ある, is similar to ことがある because it shows that something happens given a certain situation but doesn't always happen.

16. たまに遅刻する場合がある。
      There are times when I'm late. 

~に備えて

    The 一段 verb 備える has several related meanings: "to provide","to furnish", "to have (attributes)". In ~に備えて, it is equivalent to either "in case of", "for", etc. and is similar to phrases like ~ために and ~しないように. As such, you can often see it used with 場合.

17. 大洪水に備えて擁壁(ようへき)を造る。
      To build a retaining wall to prevent a big flood.

18. いつ起こるか分からない災害に備えておきましょう。
      Let's prepare for the disasters we can't see predict.

19. 事故に備えて車ではいつもシートベルトを締めていてください。
      Always keep your seat belt on in a car in case of an accident.

20. 私はオリンピックに備えて練習しています。
      I am training for the Olympics.

21. 台風に備えるのは重要だ。
      Preparing for typhoons is important.