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第46課: Adjectives III: No-Adjectival Nouns ノ形容詞

 In our coverage of “adjectival nouns (形容動詞けいようどうし),” we only looked at a class of words that are widely viewed as such. The topic of adjectival nouns, though, does not stop with adjectives that use the copula to modify nouns. There are also many words that are adjectival that look like nouns but use no to modify nouns and ni に to modify verbs as adverbs. In essence, they're more so hybrids of nouns and adjectives than what we've been called adjectival nouns. 

This lesson will focus on those words as well as their close connection to na-adjectival nouns. Although distinguishing between these two groups of words is often impossible to do, you'll learn a bit more about the real dynamics of Japanese adjectives.  

Vocabulary List

Nouns

・修行 Shugyō – (Ascetic) training/discipline

・人生 Jinsei – (Human) life

・意味 Imi – Meaning

・人 Hito – Person

・ブッダ(仏陀)Budda – (A) Buddha

・生活Seikatsu – Life/livelihood

・噂 Uwasa – Rumor

・車内アナウンス Shanai anaunsu – Train announcement

・喋り方 Shaberikata – Way of speaking

・音程 Ontei – Pitch/interval

・夕暮れ前 Yūgure-mae – Before dusk

・空 Sora – Sky

・使い方 Tsukaikata – Way to use

・注意 Chūi – Attention

・注射 Chūsha – Shot/injection

・土鍋 Donabe – Earthenware pot

・底 Soko – Bottom

・左足 Hidariashi – Left foot

・右足 Migiashi – Right foot

・ブレーキ Burēki - Break

・アクセル Akuseru - Accelerator

・景気 Keiki - Business

・時期 Jiki – Time/period

・場所 Basho – Place

・株式 Kabushiki – Stock (company)

・価格 Kakaku – Price/value/cost

・大学 Daigaku – University/college

・大人 Otona – Adult

・最初 Saisho – Beginning

・態度 Taido – Attitude

・感じ Kanji - Feeling

・鶏肉 Toriniku - Poultry

・俎板 Manaita  - Cutting board

・ボール Bōru – Bowl/ball

・調理器具 Chōri kigu – Cooking ware

・新興国 Shinkōkoku – Emerging nation

・経済 Keizai – Economy

・成長 Seichō – Growth/development

・食文化 Shokubunka – Food culture/cuisine

・舌Shita – Tongue/palate

・必要 Hitsuyō - Necessity

・料理 Ryōri – Cuisine/cookery

・思い込み Omoikomi – Assumption

・専業主婦 Sengyō shufu - Housewife

・措置 Sochi – Measure

・女性 Josei – Female

・就労 Shūrō – Being employed

・意欲 Iyoku – Will/desire/urge

・結果 Kekka – Result/effect

・症状  Shōjō – Symptom(s)

・叔父 Oji – Uncle (younger than one’s parent)

・家 Ie – House/home

・雨 Ame – Rain

・髪 Kami – Hair

・色 Iro - Color

・草原 Sōgen - Grassland

・裏側 Uragawa – Back(side)

・黒 Kuro – Black

・服 Fuku - Clothes

・体 Karada – Body

・健康 Kenkō – Health

・状態 Jōtai – Condition

・心臓 Shinzō – Heart

・森Mori – Forest

・奴 Yatsu – Guy

・進化 Shinka – Evolution

・発展 Hatten – Development/advancement

・人間 Ningen – Human

・関係 Kankei –  Relation

・意見 Iken  - Opinion 

・種類 Shurui – Species

・哺乳類 Honyūrui – Mammal

・鳥 Tori – Bird

・担当者 Tantōsha – Manager

・テクニック Tekunikku – Technique

・立場 Tachiba – Position/footing

・貿易 Bōeki – Trade

・こと Koto – Thing/incident/situation

・太陽 Taiyō – Sun

・恩恵 Onkei – Grace/favor

・判断 Handan – Judgment

・お酒 Osake – Liquor

・運動 Undō – Exercise

・現象 Genshō – Phenomenon

・友達 Tomodachi – Friend(s)

・別れ Wakare – Parting/Separation

・相性 Aishō – Affinity

・女神 Megami – Goddess

・彼氏  Kareshi – Boyfriend

Pronouns

・私達 Watashitachi  - We

Proper Nouns

・関東人 Kantōjin  - Kanto(ite)

・日本人 Nihonjin – Japanese person

Question Words

・誰にでも Dare ni demo – Anyone

Demonstratives

・この Kono – This (adj.)

・こういう Kō iu – Like this

・あの Ano – That (over there) (adj.)

・あそこ Asoko – That over there

Adjectives

・厳しい Kibishii – Harsh/strict

・浅い Asai – Shallow

・薄い Usui – Thin/pale

・良い Yoi – Good

・麗しい Uruwashii – Beautiful/lovely

Number Phrases

・二人 Futari – Two people 

 Adjectival Nouns

・本当{の}Hontō [no] – Actual/true/real

・大変{な}Taihen [na] – Serious/hard/immense

・独特{な・の} Dokutoku [na/no] – Unique/peculiar

・特別{な・の}Tokubetsu [na/no] – Especial

・普通{の}Futsū [no] – Ordinary/general

・四角{の・な} Shikaku [no/na] - Square

・連日{の Renjitsu [no] – Prolonged/every day

・一般{の} Ippan [no]- General

・一流{の} Ichiryū [no] – First-class/top grade

・大人{の・な}Otona [no/na] – Adult(-like)

・最初{の} Saisho [no] - First

・苦手{な} Nigate [na] – Bad at

・生{の・な} Nama [no/na] – Raw/unprocessed/live/crude/unprotected

・他{の}Ta/hoka [no] - Other

・多く{の} Ōku [no]  - A lot

・高度{な・の}Kōdo [na/no] – Sophisticated

・それぞれ{の} Sorezore [no] – Each

・必要{な}Hitsuyō [na] – Necessary

・世界中{の}Sekai-jū [no] – Worldwide

・NG{な}Enujii [na] – Not good

・優遇{の}Yūgū [no] – Preferential

・皮肉{な} Hiniku [na] – Ironic

・個別{の}Kobetsu [no] – Individual

・緑色{の}Midori’iro [no] – Green

・黒{の}Kuro [no] – Black

・健康{な}Kenkō [na] – Healthy

・鮮やか{な}Azayaka [na] – Vivid/vibrant

・大量{の}Tairyō [no] – Large amount of

・地球上{の}Chikyūjō [no] – On Earth

・色々{な・の}Iroiro [na/no] – Various

・急速{な}Kyūsoku [na] – Rapid

・別{の・な}Betsu [no/na] – Different

・対等{な・の}Taitō [na/no] – Equal

・当たり前{な・の}Atarimae [na/no] – Obvious

・当然{な・の}Tōzen [na/no] – Obvious

・平気{な}Heiki [na] – Calm/fine

・大丈夫{な}Daijōbu [na] – Alright

・適度{な・の}Tekido [na/no] – Moderate (amount)

・不思議{な}Fushigi [na] – Mysterious

・永遠{の}Eien [no] – Eternal

・仲良し{の}Nakayoshi [no] – Close/intimate

・最悪{の・な}Saiaku [no/na] – Worst

Adverbs

・わざと Waza to – On purpose

・若干 Jakkan – Somewhat

・最初から Saisho kara – From the beginning

・ごく Goku – Quite

・ちょっと Chotto – A little

・そのまま Sono mama – As is

・延々と En’en to – Endlessly

・必ず Kanarazu – Always

・極めて Kiwamete – Extremely

・今日 Kyō – Today

・今週 Konshū – This week

(ru) Ichidan Verbs

・積み重ねる Tsumikasaneru – To pile up (trans.)

・上げる Ageru – To raise (trans.)

・別ける Wakeru – To divide/split/share/distinguish (trans.)

・触れる Fureru – To touch (intr.)

・やめる Yameru – To stop (trans.)

・食べる Taberu – To eat (trans.)

・認める Mitomeru – To recognize (trans.)

・着る Kiru – To wear (trans.)

・遂げる Togeru – To achieve/accomplish (trans.)

・いる Iru – To be (animate and live) (trans.)

・出る Deru – To leave/appear/emerge/come up (intr.)

・起きる Okiru – To get up/occur  (intr.)

・別れる Wakareru – To separate/break up (intr.)

(u) Godan Verbs

・悟る Satoru – To be enlightened/discern (trans.)

・なる Naru – To be(come) (intr.)

・払う Harau – To pay (attention/money)/brush off (trans.)

・立ち入る Tachi’iru – To enter/trespass (int.)

・違う Chigau – To be different/wrong (intr.)

・取るToru – To take (trans.)

・残る Nokoru – To be left (intr.)

・焼くYaku – To burn/bake/toast/heat up/tan/burn (disc) (trans.)

・習う Narau – To take lessons in (trans.)

・持つ Motsu – To hold/possess (trans.)

・招く Maneku – To invite/beckon (trans.)

・削ぐ Sogu – To chip off/discourage (trans.)

・保つ Tamotsu – To preserve (trans.)

・広がる Hirogaru – To extend/stretch (intr.)

・行う Okonau – To perform/conduct (trans.)

・棲む Sumu – To inhabit (intr.)

・思う Omou – To think (trans.)

・言う Iu – To say (trans.)

suru Verbs

・留学(を)する Ryūgaku (wo) suru – To study abroad (intr.)

・アナウンスする Anaunsu suru – To announce (trans.)

・運転する Unten suru – To drive (trans.)

・下落する Geraku suru – To depreciate (intr.)

・入学する Nyūgaku suru – To enroll (intr.)

・調理する Chōri suru – To prepare (food) (trans.)

・指定する Shitei suru – To designate/specify (trans.)

・料理する Ryōri suru – To cook  

・対する Tai suru – To face/be directed toward/contrast with (intr.)

・管理する Kanri suru – To manage

・対応する Taiō suru – To handle

・構築する Kōchiku suru – To construct

Set Phrases

・鼻にかかった Hana ni kakatta – Nasal

・特別の機関 Tokubetsu no kikan – Attached organization

・百薬の長 Hyakuyaku no chō – Chief of medicines

・不思議の国 Fushigi no kuni – Wonderland

・ようこそ Yōkoso – Welcome 

No vs. Na

At first glance, many no-adjectives seem to share the same functions that na-adjectival nouns have. These so-called no-adjectives may be used to modify nouns, form the predicate of a sentence, and even be used adverbially by switching out no の with ni に.

1. (きび)しい修行(しゅぎょう)()(かさ)ねて人生(じんせい)本当(ほんとう)意味(いみ)(さと)った(ひと)を「ブッダ」と()います。
  Kibishii shugyō wo tsumikasanete jinsei no hontō no imi wo satotta hito wo "Budda" to iimasu.
  We call people who have amassed rigid discipline and have become enlightened about the true meaning of life a Buddha.  

2. 留学生活(りゅうがくせいかつ)本当(ほんとう)大変(たいへん)でした。
  Ryūgaku seikatsu wa hontō ni taihen deshita. 
  Life studying abroad was really tough.

3. あの(うわさ)本当(ほんとう)だった。
  Ano uwasa wa hontō datta.
  That rumor was true.

4. 車内(しゃない)アナウンスをする人たちは、わざと(はな)にかかった独特(どくとく)(しゃべ)(かた)音程(おんてい)()げてアナウンスしているんですよ。
Shanai anaunsu wo suru hitotachi wa, waza to hana ni kakatta dokutoku no shaberikata de ontei wo agete anaunsu shite iru n desu yo.
Train announcers purposely do the announcements with a raised pitch by speaking in a peculiarly nasal fashion.

5. 夕暮(ゆうぐ)(まえ)(そら)独特(どくとく)でした。
  Yūgure-mae no sora wa dokutoku deshita.
  The sky before dusk was peculiar.

6. 使(つか)(かた)若干独特(じゃっかんどくとく)になっています。
  Tsukaikata mo jakkan dokutoku ni natte imasu.
  How to use it is also somewhat peculiarly made.

7. 特別(とくべつ)注意(ちゅうい)(はら)ってください。
  Tokubetsu ni chūi wo haratte kudasai.
  Especially pay attention.

8. 普通(ふつう)土鍋(どなべ)(ちが)って(そこ)四角(しかく)で、(あさ)いのです。
  Futsū no donabe to chigatte soko ga shikaku de, asai no desu.
  Different from a regular earthenware pot, the bottom of it is square and shallow.

9. 連日注射(れんじつちゅうしゃ)はごく普通(ふつう)ですよ。
  Renjitsu chūsha wa goku futsū desu yo.
  Prolonged shots are quite normal.

Grammar Note: At times, no の is dropped with no-adjective phrases like in renjitsu chuusha 連日注射 to create a set phrase. This is very common when the no-adjective and the word that follows is at least two characters long and or when the phrase you're creating as a whole is rather lengthy.  

10. 最初(さいしょ)から左足(ひだりあし)でブレーキ、右足(みぎあし)でアクセルとけて普通ふつう運転うんてんしています。
    Saisho kara hidariashi de burēki, migashi de akuseru to wakete futsū ni unten shite imasu.
    I’ve been driving like normal from the beginning by putting my left foot on the break and my right foot on the accelerator. 

11. あそこは一般(いっぱん)(ひと)()()れない場所(ばしょ)です。
    Asoko wa ippan no hito ga tachi’irenai basho desu.
  That place over there can’t be entered by people at large.

Grammar Note: Tachi’ireru 立ち入れる is the potential (can) form of the verb tachi’iru 立ち入る, which is used to mean “enter” usually in the sense of “to trespass.”

12. 一般(いっぱん)景気(けいき)(わる)時期(じき)には株式(かぶしき)価格(かかく)下落(げらく)します。
  Ippan ni keiki ga warui jiki ni wa kabushiki no kakaku ga geraku shimasu.
  Generally when business is bad, the stock price/stock prices goes down.

13. 一流(いちりゅう)大学(だいがく)入学(にゅうがく)しました。
  Ichiryū no daigaku ni nyūgaku shita.
  I enrolled into a first class university.


 No の or Na

Many of these no-adjectival nouns can even be used as na-adjectival nouns instead. The nuance, which we’ll get into more in depth shortly, will tend to be different, but the interchangeability is quite real for many of them.

14. 本当(ほんとう)大人(おとな)(ひと)苦手(にがて)です。
  Hontō ni otona na hito ga nigate desu.
  I’m bad with really adult-like people.

15. (だれ)にでも大人(おとな)態度(たいど)()っていますか。
  Dare ni demo otona no taido wo totte imasu ka?
  Do you take an adult posture with anyone?

16. ちょっと(なま)(かん)じが(のこ)っている。
  Chotto nama na kanji ga nokotte iru.
  There’s still a somewhat uncooked/unprocessed/unpolished feel to it.

Meaning Note: The meaning of nama 生 can be quite varied, which is why context is needed to know how it’s meant.  

17. (なま)鶏肉(とりにく)()れた俎板(まないた)()()などの調理器具(ちょうりきぐ)はそのまま(ほか)調理(ちょうり)使用(しよう)することはやめましょう。
Nama no toriniku ni fureta manaita ya bōru nado no chōri kigu wa sono mama hoka no chōri ni shiyō suru koto wa yamemashō.
Let's stop using cookware such as cutting boards and bowls that have come in contact with raw poultry when preparing other things.

Grammar Note: The ending -mashō ましょう is used in this context to create a general polite suggestion for everyone to follow. It is the "let's" in the translation.  

18. 世界中(せかいじゅう)新興国(しんこうこく)はそれぞれ高度(こうど)経済成長(けいざいせいちょう)目指(めざ)しています。
  Sekaijū no shinkōkoku wa sorezore kōdo no keizai seichō wo mezashite imasu.
  Developing countries worldwide are each aiming for rapid economic growth.

19. (わたし)たち関東人(かんとうじん)は、高度(こうど)食文化(しょくぶんか)(した)()っているんですよ。
  Watashitachi kantōjin wa, kōdo na shokubunka to shita wo motte iru n desu yo.
  We Kanto-ites possess a sophisticated cuisine and palate.

20. 特別(とくべつ)機関(きかん)指定(してい)する必要(ひつよう)(みと)めない。
  Tokubetsu no kikan wo shitei suru hitsuyō wa mitomenai.
  (We) do not recognize the need to designate an Attached Organization.

Meaning Note: An “Attached Organization” is an organization in the Japanese government established for some specific purpose. It is a perfect example of tokubetsu no 特別の being used.

21. (おお)くのテクニックや特別(とくべつ)料理(りょうり)(なら)いました。
  Ōku no tekunikku ya tokubetsu na ryōri wo naraimashita.
  I was taught on a lot of techniques and special cuisines. 


 No not Allowed

Of course, this does not mean all na-adjectival nouns can be used as no-adjectival nouns instead.

22. 勝手(かって){な ○ ・ の X}(おも)()みはNG!
  Katte [na ○  /no X] omoikomi wa NG!
  Arbitrary assumptions are no good!

23. 専業主婦(せんぎょうしゅふ)(たい)する優遇措置(ゆうぐうそち)が、女性(じょせい)就労意欲(しゅうろういよく)()皮肉(ひにく){な ○ ・ の X}結果(けっか)(まね)いている。
Sengyō shufu ni tai suru yūgū sochi ga, josei no shūrō iyoku wo sogu hiniku [na ○  /no X] kekka wo maneite iru.
Preferential treatment toward housewives has brought about the ironic effect of weakening female desire to be working.


 Na is NG

There are some no-adjectives that can never have no の replaced by na な. The nature of no-adjectives in Modern Japanese is rather unstable, and the factors that we'll soon learn about as to why that is may change this in the future or in very specific, rare contextual circumstances, but it is safe to say that there are instances where switching them is grammatically incorrect.

24. それぞれ{の ○・な X}個別(こべつ){の ○・な X}症状(しょうじょう)()ることがあります。
  Sorezore [no ○/na X] kobetsu [no ○/na X] shōjō ga deru koto ga arimasu.
  Individual symptoms of each occasionally occur.

Grammar Note: Koto ga aru ことがある, when after the non-past tense of a verb, is used to show "occasional behavior." 

25. 叔父(おじ)(いえ)でさっき大量(たいりょう){の ○・な X}の(あめ)()っていました。
  Oji no ie de sakki tairyō [no ○/na X]  ame ga futte imashita.
  There was a massive amount of rain just now at my uncle’s house.


Noun or Adjective? 

There are times when the use of no の makes the word in question function just as a noun. Even if it can still be viewed as a noun from an English perspective, the word may in fact stilt toward “noun” than “adjective” upon comparing its use when used with na な.

26. (くろ)(ふく)()る。(Adjective?)
  Kuro no fuku wo kiru.
  To wear black clothes.

27. 日本人(にほんじん)(かみ)(いろ)(くろ)ですね。 (Noun?)
  Nihonjin no kami no iro wa kuro desu ne.
  Japanese hair color is black, isn’t it.

28. (あざ)やかな緑色(みどりいろ)草原(そうげん)延々(えんえん)(ひろ)がっていた。 (Adjective?)
  Azayaka na midori’iro no sōgen ga en’en to hirogatte ita.
  A vibrant, green grassland endlessly stretched out.

29. 裏側(うらがわ)緑色(みどりいろ)(うす)くなっている。 (Noun?)
  Uragawa wa midori’iro ga usuku natte iru.
  On the back, the green is light.

30. (からだ)健康(けんこう)状態(じょうたい)(たも)つ。 (Adjective?)
  Karada wo kenkō na jōtai ni tamotsu.
  To keep one’s body in a healthy state.

31. 心臓(しんぞう)健康(けんこう)状態(じょうたい)管理(かんり)する。 (Noun?)
  Shinzō no kenkō no jōtai wo kanri suru.
  To manage the condition of one’s heart.


Interchangeability of No の and Na 

One important take back from this discussion is that even though it may be standard to use either na な or no の, variation will still exist between the two, and this doesn’t mean that people are wrong in switching them out for each other.

The motivations for why な is heard used in place of no の when either is possible or when the latter is actually deemed to be the standard form are listed below.

1. The use of na な strengthens the sense that one is qualifying the phrase that follows.
2. The use of na な becomes more casual, especially when it is not the “standard” choice.
3. Generally speaking, na な is typically softer and subjective in nature whereas no can sound colder, more objective, and stiff.
4. No may feel simply as a mere connector of phrases whereas na な can embed some of the speaker’s feelings on top of functioning as a modifier.

The difference between the two largely falls on the feeling of the individual rather than consciously thinking which one it should be. This, perhaps, is the ultimate crux of the situation. Whenever either can be used, a semantic space is opened up to meet the emotional needs of the context. If you are ever corrected on the use of na な vs. no の, the cadence and tone of what you are saying will likely be faulty rather than the choice itself being fundamentally wrong.

In the following sentences, the adjectival nouns used can either use na な or no の, but the choice between the two is made based on the guidelines above.

32. 地球上(ちきゅうじょう)色々(いろいろ)種類(しゅるい)哺乳類(ほにゅうるい)急速(きゅうそく)進化発展(しんかはってん)()げました。
  Chikyūjō ni iroiro no shurui no honyūrui ga kyūsoku ni shinka hatten wo togemashita.
  Various species of mammals on Earth have undergone rapid evolutionary development.

33. この(もり)には色々(いろいろ)(とり)()んでいます。
  Kono mori ni wa iroiro na tori ga sunde imasu.
  There are various kinds of birds that live in this forest.

34. (べつ)意見(いけん)()(やつ)がいても、平気(へいき)です。
  Betsu na iken wo iu yatsu ga ite mo, heiki desu.
  I’m fine even if there’s a guy with a different opinion.

35. (べつ)担当者(たんとうしゃ)対応(たいおう)しても大丈夫(だいじょうぶ)です。
  Betsu no tantōsha ga taiō shite mo daijōbu desu.
  It’s okay if a different manager handles it.

36. 対等(たいとう)人間関係(にんげんかんけい)構築(こうちく)する。
  Taitō na ningen kankei wo kōchiku suru.
  To build equal human relations.

37. 対等(たいとう)立場(たちば)貿易(ぼうえき)(おこな)う。
  Taitō no tachiba de bōeki wo okonau.
  To conduct trade on equal footing.

38. こういう()たり(まえ)なことを()(ひと)(かなら)ずいるよね。
  Kou iu atarimae na koto wo iu hito wa kanarazu iru yo ne.
  There’s always a person who says obvious things like this, isn’t there.

39. (わたし)たち人間(にんげん)太陽(たいよう)恩恵(おんけい)()たり(まえ)のことだと(おも)っています。
  Watashitachi ningen wa taiyō no onkei wo atarimae no koto da to omotte imasu.
  We humans think of the benefits of the sun as something of the ordinary.

40. (きわ)めて当然(とうぜん)判断(はんだん)だと(おも)います。
  Kiwamete tōzen na handan da to omoimasu.
  I think it is an extremely obvious judgment.

41. 当然(とうぜん)結果(けっか)()ました。
  Tōzen no kekka ga demashita. 
  Obvious results were made.

42. 適度(てきど)のお(さけ)は、「百薬(ひゃくやく)(ちょう)」なのです。
  Tekido no osake wa,"hyakuyaku no chō” na no desu.
  That’s because a moderate amount of liquor is the chief of all medicines.

43. 適度(てきど)運動(うんどう)(からだ)によいです。
  Tekido na undō wa karada ni yoi desu.
  Moderate exercise is good for the body.


 Set Phrases

Sometimes variation is typically restricted to set phrases, with one being restricted and the other one being the overwhelming used option.

44. 不思議の国へようこそ。
  Fushigi no kuni e yōkoso.
  Welcome to Wonderland.

45. 不思議{な 〇・の X}現象が起きた。
  Fushigi [na 〇/no X] genshō ga okita.
  A mysterious phenomenon has occurred.


Na vs. No: Dependent Clause 

While there is great variation as to whether one should use no の or na な, the decision as to which should be used shifts almost entirely to na な whenever it functions as the end of a dependent clause modifying a noun.  For example, in Ex. 46 kareshi 彼氏 is being modified by [aishō ga saiaku da 相性が最悪だ], which makes saiaku 最悪 seem more like a noun that happens to be next to the copula in the form of na な.

46. 今週、相性が最悪な彼氏と別れました。
  Konshu, aishō ga saiaku na kareshi to wakaremashita.
  This week, I broke up with my boyfriend who had the worst compatibility with.


 Adjective + No

Oddly enough, there is a very small handful of adjectives in which no の follows regular adjectives in peculiar ways. One such example is nakayoshi 仲良し, the original form of naka ga ii 仲がいい. This can in fact be used as a no-adjective as seen below.

47. 今日(きょう)2(ふた)()仲良(なかよ)しだった。
  Kyō mo futari wa nakayoshi datta.
  The two got along well today as well.

48. 仲良(なかよ)しの友達(ともだち)がいない。
      Nakayoshi no tomodachi ga inai.
      I don’t have any close friends.

Last but not least, though they are very, very few in number, there are some rare examples of no の attaching to the stem of adjectives in literary language. They are always replaceable with something else, but they’re interesting to know about.

49a. (なが)(わか)れとなった。
         Naga no wakare to natta.
49b. 永遠(えいえん)(わか)れとなった。(More spoken and also more common)
        Eien no wakare to natta.
       It became an eternal separation.

50. (うるわ)しの女神(めがみ)
     Uruwashi no megami
     A heartwarmingly beautiful goddess

I'm Moving!

I will moving the think tank, which is myself, to a new location this weekend and will be low on funds for a while. New lessons are still being made, but any donations at this time would greatly be appreciated.
Aside from the Donation tab, there are also two GoFundMe campaigns to help out. 

https://www.gofundme.com/remastering-japanese-curriculum?utm_source=internal&utm_medium=email&utm_content=campaign_link_t&utm_campaign=welcome

https://www.gofundme.com/fixing-vehicle